Chapter 9

Team Oahu
9.4 Matt Pullen
9.3 Nathan Matteson
9.2 Eric Olivarez
9.5 Byran Diaz

9.1 Introduction

9.2 will be presented by Eric Olivarez

Goals of Collaboration and Participation
Every day, we all collaborate, or use some sort of tool as a form of collaboration. Whether it is text messaging, asking a question on a forum, chatting over an instant messenger, or talking with your friends in an XBOX Live party, we have all collaborated or have participated with a group in some way, shape, or form. People do this because it is satisfying or productive for them. It can be a one-time encounter, or a lasting partnership. Understanding these relationships as a designer will help create a more user friendly interface.

Below are some collaborative processes and strategies:

Focused Partnerships: Collaborations between two or three people who need each other to complete a task. For example; programmers debugging a program together, or a group of friends playing Call of Duty communicating with eachother to flank the other team.

Lecture or demo: One person sharing information with many users at remote sites. This is most of the time, streamed over a video conference to allow for replay.

Conferences: Groups that get together usually in the same environment face to face to communicate at the same time. In some cases, use many-to-many messaging for those who cannot make the conference in person.

Structured work process: Allows people with distinct organizational roles to collaborate on a certain task. For example, the university admissions committee registers, reviews, chooses, and informs applicants.

Meeting and Decision Support: A face-to-face meeting with each user working at a computer, making simultaneous contributions.

Electronic Commerce: Customers browsing and comparing prices online, followed by short-term collaborations to inquire about a product, usually over the phone, or by chat.

Teledemocracy: Allows towns, and organizations to conduct online town-hall meetings, to produce consensus, debates, and votes.

Online communities: Groups of people who come online to discuss, share information or support, socialize, or play games. Communities that focus on shared interest, such as Gamefaqs, is referred to as a community of interest (Cols). Communities whose focus is professional are known as communities of practice (CoPs). Communities whose members are located in the same geographical area are known as networked communities.

Collaboratories: Scientists or other professionals that work together across time and space.

Telepresence: Allows users to have experiences that are almost as good as being physically co-present, which usually involves the use of 3D virtual environments (Second Life, any online multiplayer 3D video game).

Measures of success:

  • Number of participants in a discussion forum, messages posted, and the regularity of return visits by members.
  • How many times a user updates their status on Facebook.
  • How many times a user logs into an instant messenger.

Overall, collaboration and social media participation take time, effort and motivation. We as designers need to research and understand the reasons people participate in certain activities and how to motivate higher levels of participation.

Four Category Motivation Approach:

  • Egoism: You will personally benefit from the activity.
  • Altruism: You genuinely want to help others.
  • Collectivism: You believe in supporting the community.
  • Principlism: You’ve been taught principals such as “do unto others, as you would have them do unto you.”

Four Category Value Approach:

  • Value to self.
  • Value to a small group the user is involved with.
  • Value to a small group where there is no real involvement.
  • Value to the entire user community.

Other methods to keep users involved and active include:

  • Assigning points and status levels.
  • Make users who contribute to the community widely visible.
  • Enable users to gain recognition or build their reputation.
  • Reward users for exceptional contributions.

9.3 will be presented by Nathan Matteson

9.4 Synchronous Distributed Interfaces: Different Place, Same Time

  • Forms of Synchronous Collaboration
    • Chat
    • Instant Messaging
    • Text Messaging
    • Audio and Video Conferencing

9.4.1 Chat, instant messaging, and texting

  • Chat
    • Chat Environments
      • Second Life
        • Some corporations and educational institutions have established their own islands in Second Life
        • Users often spend more time on the textual chat than navigating the graphical worlds
        • What is the added value of avatars and 3D graphics?
      • Microsoft's LiveMeeting
        • Both have chat windows as well as graphical interfaces
      • Brief greetings and short comments are typical of fast-moving chat environments
      • Participants can take on new personalities by taking on imaginative names such as:
        • gypsy
        • Larry Lightning
        • Really Rosie
      • Social Chatter
        • Can be light, provocative, or intimidating
      • Chat Participants
        • Not all participants are there for serious conversations
        • Wisecracking flamers
          • intent on a put-down rather than a conversation
      • Chat rooms can also be environments for deception, illicit invitations, and various forms of entrapment
  • Instant Messaging
    • Popular alternative to chat rooms
    • Membership is tightly controlled
    • Ideal for quick exchanges between close friends, family members, or small groups
    • Most IM systems also allow users to share files such as photographs
    • Popular phrases
      • LOL, CUL8R, IMHO, LMAO…
    • Cryptic shorthand ways of communication
      • cu@1, me4u….
    • Teenagers are particularly adept and creative users of such shorthand
    • Can be used in the work place to promote productivity
  • Text Messaging
    • Texting via cell phones has become an extremely popular means of communication
    • Worldwide acceptance is high
    • Some Organizations use text-messaging to alert constituents of activities such as:
      • Traffic alerts
      • Weather related emergencies

9.4.2 Audio- and videoconferencing

Steadily growing commercial success for when synchronous communications is needed to organize a special event, deal with tense negotiations, or build trust among new contacts.

  • Audio conferencing
    • Standard Telephones or cell phones anywhere in the world can be used to dial into an audio conferencing system
  • Video conferencing
    • Specialized videoconferencing rooms with multiple high-resolution multi-camera setups can be reserved by appointment
    • Software or service options available:
      • Microsoft's meeting software
      • Yahoo!
      • Cisco
      • WebEx
      • Polycom
      • Sony
      • TANDBERG
      • HP Halo
    • These platforms provide increasingly high-quality images and sound
    • At Home
      • Keep in touch with distant relatives
      • Keep in touch with family while away traveling
    • At Work
      • Hold meetings for your employees anywhere in the world
      • Great for organizations with multiple locations that need to collaborate
    • At a Hospital
      • Allow patients and families to visit, diminishing some of the stress caused by hospital confinement for both parties
    • In Education
      • Gives distant learners increased opportunities for participaiton
      • Allows remote viewers to see and hear the lecturer

9.5 Face-to-Face Interfaces: Same Place, Same Time

by Bryan Diaz

Face-to-face Interfaces are best described as a way for users to communicate using speech, gestures and facial expressions to interact with one another in a group form. There are many types of ways users of all types included can use to interact with different types of data. This allows for many operations to be easier to execute and for data to be changed, saved, and have access privileges.

Innovative approaches to work and learning

1) Work Innovation

  • a. Shared displays that allow large or small groups to view and interact with.
  • b. Devices that allow for audience response, 3D presentation and also allow interactions amongst the groups/users.
  • c. Allow to send, receive and handle live text based data that can be shared amongst the groups/users.


  • d. Allow for handling secure data and data analysing, which can be used for voting, ranking or brainstorming in groups.

2) Electronic Classrooms

  • a. Allow users to user and handle electronic workbooks, homework and books without the use of paper.
  • b. Allow users to use face-to-face interfaces for design, user interaction and presentation in workstations or groups.
  • c. Data handling and submission of text for quick view and allows for quick response amongst the user groups.
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License